Constructing Earthquake Resistant Masonry Houses - Bandaged using Ferrocement Layers
Almost every year, a destructive earthquake occurred in Indonesia and every time many non-engineered constructions are heavily damaged or even collapsed. The damage and collapse of non-engineered constructions caused a lot of human lives. The main causes of damage and / or collapse of masonry non-engineered constructions in Indonesia when shaken by earthquakes are poor quality of building materials and poor quality of workmanship, which are below standards, e.g. the incorrect mixing of mortar as well as concrete, incorrect laying of bricks, the detailing of reinforcement of the practical columns / practical beams are not suitable for earthquake regions.
To overcome this problem, since 2014, the author did research about masonry houses bandaged by ferrocement layers on both sides of the wall. Subsequently, that composite structure (ferrocement layer, masonry wall, ferrocement layer) is analyzed as sandwich structure. The result showed that the masonry walls bandaged by ferrocement layers are strong if shaken by earthquakes. The installation of wire mesh for ferrocement is easier, faster, and lower in cost compared to the installation of steel reinforcement for practical columns and practical beams. Also it is easier than constructing earthquake resistant reinforcing bars detailing for beam-column joints. Apart from the analysis, the author also did a full scale shaking table test in Japan in 2014 and the results are as indicated in the analysis. Rubble stone foundation should be abandoned and changed into inverted T-foundation beams.
This manual is a sample of common people's housing and it is hoped that it can be constructed by home-owners when building in earthquake prone areas. Apart from that, the same method can be applied to strengthen common people's housing that are already built in order to make it earthquake resistant and safe human lives during earthquakes. This method has been applied in West Sumatra, Center Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, Lombok, Cianjur, as well as other regions in Indonesia.